„This [technical] idea was discussed and rejected by the UK and the EU in the summer of 2018, with both sides concluding that it would not keep an open border. That`s why we`ve finished the current backstop. There are no borders in the world right now, apart from a customs union that has eliminated border infrastructure.  The full board was published at a later date and shows that the „backstop“ conditions could mean that the UK could face „long and repeated rounds of negotiations.“  In March 2019, further notices were issued that the Vienna Convention on Treaty Law could be used if it turned out that the backstop had a „socially destabilizing effect on Northern Ireland“.  France`s experience with a conflict for New Caledonia in 1998 offers a lesson in this regard. At the time, the then Prime Minister, Michel Rocard, negotiated an agreement between the French „unionists“ and the „independents“ of Kanack. This agreement, which began a long period of civil peace, involved a forward-looking referendum on the future of the territory. The referendum was held without incident in November 2018. Turnout was high (81%) and a majority voted in favour of keeping France (56.7%). The parallels are clear. Talks resumed in the following days, so a joint report was published on 8 December to report on the commitments that must be taken into account in the withdrawal agreement. The UK and the EU negotiating teams both supported the prevention of a „hard border“ and proposed a draft withdrawal agreement containing a backstop: a number of bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements have made controls less intrusive; The completion of the European internal market in 1992 led to the end of goods controls. However, during the riots in Northern Ireland, British military checkpoints occurred at major border crossings and British security forces made some, but not all, crossing points impassable.
In 2005, in the implementation phase of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, the last of the border checkpoints was abolished.  Following the announcement of the agreement, Prime Minister Leo Varadkar hailed the agreement as a „one-off solution“ recognizing Northern Ireland`s history and geography and allowing the UK to leave the EU in an orderly manner. On 29 January 2019, the House of Commons voted 317 to 301 in favour of Sir Graham Brady`s amendment to the Brexit Next Steps amendment which calls for „the Backstop of Northern Ireland to be replaced by other provisions to avoid a hard border, to support an agreement to leave the European Union and therefore to support the withdrawal agreement under this amendment.“ Brexit: Michel Barnier questions Theresa May`s `backstop plan` On 10 October 2019 Johnson and Leo Varadkar held „very positive and promising“ talks that led to the resumption of negotiations and a week later, Mr Johnson and Jean-Claude Juncker announced that they had agreed (subject to ratification) on a new withdrawal agreement, which replaced the backstop with a new protocol on Northern Ireland/the Republic of Ireland.  The Irish government, in particular, insisted on this backstop.   In addition, point 50 stressed that there would be no new controls on goods and services that would be transferred from Northern Ireland to Britain. In 2018, point 50 of the final eu withdrawal agreement was omitted on the grounds that it was an internal matter in the UK. The final withdrawal agreement for 2018 was originally approved by the British Prime Minister (Theresa May), but the DUP (whose minority government depended on confidence and supply support) vetoed a parliamentary vote in January 2019.  The proposed withdrawal agreement would end the special regime for Northern Ireland if a solution could be found that would provide a border as imetable as it is from the Good Friday agreement to Brexit.