Nile Agreement 2015

In 2013, the Ethiopian Parliament ratified a controversial treaty replacing colonial agreements that gave Egypt and Sudan most of the Nile water. Cross-border cooperation in water is a key element in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, she stressed, stressing that climate change, combined with population growth and expected socio-economic changes, will increase the challenges of water management worldwide, not just for countries bordering the Blue Nile. „Cooperation is not a zero-sum game; It is the key to successful joint action to reduce poverty and stimulate growth, which will take advantage of the region`s development potential,“ she said, expressing the hope that Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan will support their efforts towards a mutually beneficial agreement. She welcomed the determination of the parties to negotiate an agreement and the efforts of the African Union to facilitate the process and said that the remaining technical and legal differences, including the need for an agreement, a dispute resolution mechanism and water flow management during droughts. Although the United Nations was not involved in the negotiations, the Secretary-General is fully open to this issue. The United Nations stands ready to provide support, if necessary, to support technical and competent assistance at the request of the three countries, including any support that may be needed in the African Union-led process. These differences on the use of the Nile are not new and indeed have a long history, as these countries are heavily dependent on the waters of the Nile. In 1929, an agreement was reached between Egypt and Great Britain on the use of Nile waters – Britain represented its colonies in the Nile basin. [1] The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty dealt with many issues concerning the Nile and its tributaries.

The fact that it has granted Egypt an annual allocation of 48 billion cubic metres of water and Sudan 4 billion cubic metres, on an estimated average annual yield of 84 billion cubic metres, is particularly important for the current debate. In addition, the 1929 agreement granted Egypt a veto over construction projects on the Nile or one of its tributaries in order to minimize interference in the flow of water into the Nile. The Vietnamese delegate expressed concern that many international waterways are increasingly being used untenablely, which may not guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of the coastal countries, particularly downstream. The negative effects of this trend, compounded by the effects of climate change, call into question security, stability and development in many regions, including Africa, where millions of people depend on common rivers. He called on the three parties to continue to build on the results achieved and to fully implement the agreement on the declaration of principle on the 2015 dam project. The outstanding issues must be resolved peacefully, in a friendly spirit and in good faith, in accordance with international law and the 2015 agreement. He welcomed the role played by the African Union and warned against any unilateral action that could jeopardize the prospects for a negotiated solution. The use of international waterways must be in line with international law and the obligations of the countries concerned. The interests of riparian countries, especially those of downstream, must be harmonized to ensure sustainable use and an equitable share of water resources. He also stressed the importance of codifying and developing international law with regard to the use of cross-border waterways, including the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Non-Navigator Use of International Waterways.