To stabilize GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, global anthropogenic GHG emissions are expected to peak and then decrease (see climate protection).  Lower stabilization levels would require an earlier peak and a reduction in emissions relative to higher stabilization levels.  The graph above shows annual variations in global GHG emissions (measured in CO2 equivalents) for different stabilization scenarios. The other two diagrams show changes in atmospheric GHG concentrations (in CO2 equivalent) and the overall average temperature of these scenarios. Lower stabilization levels are linked to lower levels of global warming than higher stabilization levels.  People are witnessing the significant effects of climate change, including changing weather conditions, rising sea levels and extreme weather events. Greenhouse gas emissions from human activity are driving climate change and continuing to increase. They are now at the highest level in history. Without measurements, the average surface temperature of the world is expected to rise over the 21st century, and probably exceed 3 degrees Celsius over the course of this century – with some parts of the world likely to warm even more.
The poorest and most vulnerable are the most affected. In 2010, Japan declared that it would not sign a second Kyoto period because it would impose restrictions on its main economic competitors, China, India and Indonesia.  A similar note was given by the New Zealand Prime Minister in November 2012.  At the 2012 conference, the objections of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan were ignored at the last minute by government officials and suggested that they would probably withdraw or not ratify the treaty.  These defections add additional pressure to the UNFCCC process, which some consider tedious and costly: in the United Kingdom alone, in two years, the Department of Climate Change has flown more than 3,000 flights at a price of more than 1,300,000 pounds sterling.  Another key difference between the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol is their scope. While the Kyoto Protocol distinguishes between Schedule 1 countries and those not annexed to Schedule 1, this branch is scrambled in the Paris Agreement, as all parties must submit emission reduction plans.  While the Paris Agreement continues to emphasize the principle of „common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities“ – the recognition that different nations have different capacities and duties to combat climate change – it does not offer a specific separation between developed and developing countries.
 It therefore appears that negotiators will have to continue to address this issue in future rounds of negotiations, although the debate on differentiation could take on a new dynamic.  The agreement commits all countries to reduce their emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time.